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Monday, November 28, 2011


Degrees of Comparison

How to Interchange Different Degrees

With a view to interchanging different degrees from one  to another depends on some rules.These rules are so essential that without learning and practice  them properly we can turn one kind degree into another kind.These kind of degrees of change are of three kinds.They are

1)superlative to positive
2)superlative to comparative
3)comparative to positive
4)comparative to superlative
5)positive to superlative
6)positive to comparative

Now we are going to learn and practice the rules of degrees of change by turn.

Superlative to Positive

Read the following sentence:-

She is the best house wife I have ever seen.
No other house wife I have ever seen  is so good as she.
He is the wisest man in the village.
No other man in the village is so wise as he


Subject+verb+the+superlative degree+noun+ext.
No other +noun+ext.+verb+so+positive degree+as+subject.

If there is of any/of all after the superlative degree,in positive degree we have to delete of any/of all.i.e.

It burns the prettiest of any wood.
No other wood burns so pretty as it.
Mutton chop was the cheapest of all dishes on the menu.
No other dish on the menu was so cheap as mutton chop.

After no other in the sentence of a positive degree,a singular number noun/noun phrase is used.So after no word +noun/noun phrase,the verb will be singular.

Read the following sentence

He is one of the best boys in the class.
Very few boys in the class are so good as he.
Iron is one of the most useful  metals.
Very few metals are so useful as iron.


Subject+verb+one of the+superlative degree+noun+ext.
Very few+noun+ext.+verb+so+positive degree+as +subject.
After very few in positive degree a plural noun/noun phrase is used ,as the noun/noun phrase after one of the+superlative degree is plural.So the verb after the noun/noun phrase of very few will be plural.


Degrees of Conversion

How to use different degrees

7)In affirmative sentence,to compare between two equal person/thing/animal  is used but  in negative sentence so/ is used in that case.i.e.

He is as tall as his brother.
She is not so/as beautiful as her cousin.

8)To compare between two or more persons/things/animals which are not equal a comparative degree with er is used and than is also used after it.i.e.

Potatoes are cheaper than tomatoes.

9)To show increase/decrease gradually,double comparatives linked with and are used.i.e.

The sooner,the better.
The more he gets ,the more he wants.

10)very is used before positive degree and much is used before comparative degree.i.e.

I am very glad to meet you.
The sum is much easier.

11)Again very is used before present participle(verb-ing) and much is used before past participle(verb-d/ed/t).i.e.

The journey is very interesting.
He became much annoyed.

In order to interchange different degrees of change,we have to remember the above rules .If we know them ,we can use degrees of change easily and perfectly. 


Degrees of Comparison

How to use degrees of change

1)when a comparative degree is used  for the comparison of two or more thing/person/animal of a same class,than any /all other will be used after the comparative degree.i.e.

Nazrul is greater than any other poet.
Nazrul is greater than all other poets.

a singular number noun is used after than any other but a plural noun is used after than all other.

2)when a comparative degree is used for the comparison of different qualities of a person/thing,more will be put before the positive degree but er will not added after positive degree.i.e.

He is more brave than strong.

3)the following comparative degrees are always used in positive degree i.e.

He is the former manager of this bank.

4)In order to select/identify one from two things/persons/animals,the will be used before comparative degree.i.e 

He is the taller of the two boys..

5)while comparison between two nouns,if the possessive case of first noun is used,the possessive case of second noun will also be used .In that case than that/those of can be used without  writing the second noun.i.e

John's hair is blacker than Jamal's.
or John's hair is blacker than that/those of Jamal.

6)If there are too many adjective in the same sentence,degree of comparison will be used for all of them.i.e.

Jawed  is the wisest and most intelligent boy in the team.


Degrees of comparison

Degrees of Change

With a view to comparing  quality/quantity,degrees of change are used.It means to express some one /something quality/quantity without comparing,comparing between two same person/thing and comparing among all/many.When there is no comparison,a positive degree is used.When there is comparison between two same person/thing,a comparative degree is used.When there is comparison among all,a superlative degree is used.So ,we can say ;degrees of change are of three kinds.They are 1)positive,2)comparative and3)superlative

How to build/form different degrees

1)Usually we have to add er after a positive degree to make it comparative degree and est after a positive degree to make it superlative degree.For example;

positive                                                   comparative                                          superlative
cold                                                          colder                                                  coldest
poor                                                        poorer                                                  poorest
big                                                          bigger                                                   biggest 
fat                                                           fatter                                                     fattest
fine                                                          finer                                                     finest
wise                                                        wiser                                                   wisest
dry                                                          drier                                                    driest
pretty                                                     prettier                                                 prettiest
gay                                                         gayer                                                  gayest

2)when there is two or more syllable in a positive degree,to make it comparative degree more/less will have to be placed before the positive degree and most/least will be added before the positive degree to make it  superlative degree.For example;
positive                                        comparative                                                          superlative
beautiful                                   more/less beautiful                                                most/least beautiful
honest                                     more/less honest                                                    most/least honest
interesting                               more/less interesting                                                most/least interesting
3)There is no rule for making comparative/superlative degree from  the following positive degree:-
positive                                     comparative                                                   superlative
good                                        better                                                                   best
bad/evil/ill                                 worse                                                                  worst
much/many                                more                                                                   most
old                                           older/elder                                                        oldest/eldest
fore                                          former                                                              foremost/first
late                                          later                                                                  latest
4)when the following adverbs are used for comparison,they will be used as adjective and changed in the following way:-
positive                                              comparative                                                superlative
up                                                      upper                                                             uppermost
out                                                      outer                                                            utmost
far                                                      farther                                                           farthest