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Tuesday, August 30, 2011


Completing sentence

4.Read the following sentence:

He will play provided his team wants.
We shall start early providing that we get up.

subj. +'ll +verb +provided/providing that,/provided that +subj.+verb +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence

The plane will take off provided
I shall agree with you providing that
They will come provided that

5.Read the following sentence

He studied delligently lest he should/might fail in the exam.
They ran fast lest they should miss the train.


subj. +verb +ext. +lest +subj. +should/might +verb. +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence

The oldman walked slowly lest
She works hard lest
Hurry up lest
He flattered his boss lest
Our country has natural resources lest

6.Read the following sentence

Unless you study,you will fail.
They will not shine unless they work heard.
Unless she studied,she would fail.


1.subj +verb(present/future) +ext +unless +subj. +verb(present) +ext.
2.Unless +subj +verb (past) ,+subj. +would +verb +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence

Unless you ran fast
He will come unless
They meet us unless
Wait here unless
Unless you read delligently,

Monday, August 29, 2011



In order to learn to complete sentences ,one must have vocabulary,knowledge of tense ,and some rules.The rules are following.

1.Read the following sentences:

He is too weak to walk.
You are too dull to learn this.

subject +verb +too+adjective +to +verb +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence

The are too poor
We are too ill
He was too dishonest

2.Read the following sentence:

He is so short that he cannot touch the roof.
They were so poor that they could not earn their living.

Subj. +verb +so +adj. +that +subj. +can/could +not +verb +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence:

The boy is weak that
Their condition was so rough that
You are so rich that
We were so young that

3.Read the following sentences :

He reads sothat he can pass.
They worked sothat they could earn money.

Subj. +verb +so that /inorderthat/that +subj. +can/could + verb +ext.

Complete the bellow sentence:

We eat sothat
He went to the shop inorderthat
The roads were made that

Thursday, August 25, 2011


Uses of capital letters.

  1. Every first letter of the first word of every sentence must be written in capital .i.e. He goes home.Everybody hates a liar.
  2. The firrst letter of the first word of evry sentence of a poem must be  capital.i.e.The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more.
  3. The first letter of every proper noun and proper adjective will be capital.i.e He knows Aslam.They like Chinese dishes.
  4. pronoun I and interjection O will always be in capital.i.e/If they want, I 'll help them.Bless me, O' God.
  5. God/Allah and its pronoun will strt with a prayed to Allah and He blessed me.
  6. Tittle and abbreviation will always be written in capital Dr.
  7. The salutation of a letter will start with a capital Sir,My dear mother.
  8. Evevy first letter of a sentence in quotation will be said,"I am honest."



A group of words having a subject and a finite verb used as a part of a large sentence is a clause.

It is of three kinds.

1.Principle clause-which has a subj. And a finite verb and can express a sense alone.i.e.everybody hates him.

2.Subordinate clause-has a subj.and a verb and cannot express a sense without the principle clause.i.e. because he is a liar.

3.Co-ordinate clause-two ormore clause are joined with a conjunction.i.e.I went and met him.



A group of word having no subj.and verb ,expressin an incomplete sense is used as a part of speech in a sentence is called a phrase.Phrases are of five kinds.

1.Noun phrase-which is used as a noun.i.e.I don't know how to swim.

2.Adjective phrase-which is used as an adjective.i.e.He is out and out a gentleman.

3.Adverb phrase -which is used as an adverb.i.e.we will suffer in the long run.

4.Prepositional phrase-which is used as a preposition.i.e.because of illness,he came here.

5.Conjunctional phrase-which is used as a conjunction.i.e.I'll go there as soon as Ican .

There are verbal and interjection phrase also.


Parts of speech

Every word of a sentence is called a part of speech.

It is of 8 kinds.

1.Noun:any naming word of a sentence is a noun.i.e.John,Reba,ink,girl,cow,sea,rice etc.

2.Pronoun:the word which is used instead of a noun is called a pronoun.i.e.I.WE ,YOU etc

3.Verb:the word means to do,go,doetc.

4.Adjective:the word which express the quality,quantity,number or qualify any noun or pronoun ,is called an adjective.i.e.good,bad,one etc.

5.Adverb;the word which express other words of a sentence without noun or pronoun is an adverb.i.e.well,yesterday etc.

6.Preposition: the word sitting before a noun/pronoun connect it with other word of the sentence is a preposition.i.e. To,from etc.

7.Conjunction:the word which join two or more word,phrase and clause.i.e. And,therefore,but etc.

8.Interjection: the word expressing mental thought is an interjection.i.e.oh!hurrah!etc



There are three kinds of person.

1.First person:the word which does the verb.they are I,WE,ME,US.MINE,OURS.

2.Second person:to whom is said.they are YOU,YOUR..YOURS.




According to structure,there are three types of sentence.

1.simple sentence:if a sentence has a sub. and a finite verb,it is called a simple sentence.i.e.He reads a book.

2.Compound sentence:if two or more principle clause are linked with any co-ordinating conjunction,it is called a compound sentence.i.e.He came here and met me.

3.Complex sentence:if any sentence has a principle clause and a or many subordinate clause linked with a subordinate conjunction,it is called a complex sentence.i.e.He came here sothat he could meet me.


Every sentence has two parts.
1.subject.:the word that does the function of a verb.
2.predicate:the rest of words.

Read the bellow sentences.

Sakila sings a song.
Haider went home yesterday.

From the above sentences,Sakila and Haider are subject.
Sings a song and went home yesterday are the predicate.

The subj.part contains subject and adjunct to the subject.
The predicate part contains verb,object and ext.

Subj.may be noun.pronoun ..adjective,verb. gerund.. phrase and clause.
Adjunct to the subject may be adj.adv.phrase,clause,participle, infinitive etc
verb may be auxiliary verb and main verb.
Object is as like as subject.
Ext. May be adj.adv etc.



Read the following group of words.
Goes the school to boy.
I song a sing.
He draws a picture.

From the above group of words the first two doesn't express a complete sense but the 3rd one does so.

If a group of words having an organized arrangement express a complete sense, it is called a sentence.
According to meaning there are five kinds of sentences.They are

1. Assertive

If a sentence narrates sth it is called an assertive sentence.
The structure are following
1. subj. +(a.v.+v)/verb +ext.
2.sub .+a.v. +not/no +ext.
For example
She goes home.They play football.
You are not honest. We have no car.

If a sentence is used to know sth ,it is called a question or an interrogative sentence. There are four types of questions.

a.if a question starts with an a.v .and the answer may be yes/no ,it is called an a.v/yes-no question.i.e.
Are you well?Have you done it?

2.if a question starts with a wh-word for any information,it is called a wh-question.i.e
who are you? What does he do?

3.if there is a short at the end of any sentence,it is called a tag question.i.e.He is honest,isn't he?

4.if an assertive sentence ends with a sign of interrogation for any surprise,it is called surprising/wondering question.i.e.He makes a noise?

The structures are following:
1.A.V. +subj. +ext?
2.wh-word +a.v.+ Ext?
3.subj. +a.v./verb +ext,'t/a.v +subj.?
4.subj. Verb.+ext.?
3.if a sentence express any order/advice/ is called an imperative sentence.i.e.
Do it.Do not do it.Let us do it.Let him do it.

The structures are following.
b.Do not +verb+ext.
c.Let us +verb +ext.
d.Let +him/her/it/them/noun+ verb+ext.
4.if a sentence any wish/prayer,it is called an optative sentence.i.e.May you be happy.Long live our country.

The structure are following:
May +subj.+verb+ext.

5.if a sentence expresses any wonder/surprise,it is called an exclamatory sentence.i.e.How tall he is!if I were rich!

The structures are following:
a.How/what +a/an+adj.+subj.+a.v/verb!
b.If +subj.+verb.(past)+ext!

Every sentence is of two kinds.
1.if a sentence expres any positive idea,it is called an affirmative sentence.
2.if a sentence expres any negative ,it is a negative sentence.

Monday, August 22, 2011


Add tag quertion to the following sentences:

A barking dog seldom bites. Do not tell a lie.Everymother loves her child. We should love our country.Nobody likes a liar.It will suitable for you.I am honest.I amnot ill.Rana is clever.He isnot are working hard. You are not poor.Rani has a nice dress.Nakib has no umbrella.The boys have made a noise.The girls haven't done this.

All of us should go.Either of you can go.Neither of them might be present.He reads a book. You donot go there.We play cricket.Kamal doesnot sing a song.We got into the train.she made a shout.Nirmal swam in the sea.

Sit down.Keep quiet.Do not read aloud.Always try to be honest.Never go there.Let her go.Let them play.Let me sleep.Let us walk.Let us sing.How naughty you are!What a fine dress he puts on!What a pity!How odd!How funny!

None was present.Nothing can daunt you.Nobody misbehaved with them.Neither of the boys help her.All should hate a liar.Everybody dislikes him.Each girl will get a gift.Anyone doesnot help you.I know none.He has few friends.They visit us hardly.That he is honest is kown to all.Althat glitters is not gold.



Tips and techniques.

If the 3rd person ..plural number and any gender ,in tags they must be used instead of it.

If the the name of a country/ train/ship/the moon/the earth /regular feminine gender, then in tags ,she is used instead of it.

Instead of All/each/either/neither/every of us,one should use we Instead of All/each/either/neither/every of you one should use you,Instead of All/each/either/neither/everyof them/noun ,they should be used.
Instead of a phraise/clause ,one must use it.For example:-

All of us can do this,can't  we?
Either of you should read attentively,shouldn't you ?
Neither of them went,did they?
That the boy is guilty is known to all,isn't it?



Tips and techniques

In order to change /use pronoun in tag question,one has to keep in mind the following things.

  • 1.If the subj. of a sentence is I/we / you/ he/she/it/they/there.then it remains unchanged.
  • 2.If the sub. of a sentence is noun ,then one should put a pron. instead of that noun.

For a 3rd person.singular number and masculine gender noun ,one has to use he,For a 3rd person.singular number and feminine gender noun,one has to use she and For a 3rd person.singular number and newter gender should be used.For example:

Rahim goes home,doesn't he?
Selina wrote this, didn't she?
The book is on the table,isn't it?


Tips and techniques.

There are two kinds of tag question.

1.positive tag:If the given sentence is a negative sentence,one should put a positive tag at the end of that sentence.for example:

I can't go,can I?
He doesn't come,does he?

2.Negative tag:If the given sentence is an affirmative sentence ,one should put a negative tag at the end of that sentence. For example.

We should go ,shouldn't we?
He came,didn't he?

If there is any negative word i.e.not/no/none/no one/no body/nothing/neither/never/rarely/seldom/little/few/scarcely/hardly/ no sooner.a positive tag must be used there.and if there is seen no negative word in the sentence,a negative tag such as a.v.n't *sub/pronoun must be used there.



Read the following sentences.

None will go, will they?
Nobody phoned,did they?
Neither of the boys came,did they?

Guess what will be the structure?

None/no one/nobody/neither +A.V./verb. +......,A.V./to do +they?

Make tags from the bellow sentences.

None may come.
Nobody will say so.
Neither of them shoud quarrel.
None accepted you here.
No one did this at a glance.



Read the bellow sentences.

Some cannot do this,can they?
All should not go,should they?

Think to make the structure.

All/many/some/any/every/each/either/one +A.V. +not/no +.......,A.V. +they?

Make tags from the following sentences.

Either of them did not go.
Each of the girls has no pen.
One should not disobey one's parents.
Everybody cannot hope this.


Read the following sentences;

Everybody wil go there,won't they?
All must die,mustn't they?
Some may go,mayn't they?

Make the structure from the above sentences.

Every/any/all/many/some/each/one/either/each other/one another +A.V. +..........,.A.V.+n't +they?

Make tags from the bellow sentences.

Everyone will go.
Either of the boys can do this .
Anybody could make it.
Eachone should obey him.
One should do one's duty.


Read the following sentences.

Nothing is important,is it?
Everything will be the better,won't it?

Make structures from the above sentences.

Nothing +A.V...........,A.V.+it?
Nothing+verb+......,do/does/did +it?
Every/any +thing+A.V./verb +.........A.V./do/does/did +n't +it?

Make tags from the bellow sentences:

Nothing will be happened.
Everything may do.
Anything was bad.
Nothing is good.
Everything would be fine.



Read the following sentences:

How nice you are,aren't you?
What a fine picture it is,isn't it?
How nice she sings ,doesn't she?
What an interesting song you sang,didn't you?

Make structures from the above sentences.

How/what +a/an+adj +sub.+A.V., A.V+n't+sub/pron?
How/what +a/an+adj+sub+verb,do/does/did+n't+sub./pron?

Make tags from the bellow sentences:

How funny you are.
What a fool she is.
How charming the sight was.
What a nice friend he has.
How dangerously he drives.
What a pathetic story he knew.
What a pity.
How funny.



Read the following sentences.

I read a book,don't I?
You go there, don't you?
They play cricket, don't they?
He makes a noise, doesn't he?
She cries,doesn't she?
It delighted me, didn't it?

Form a structure from the above sentences.

Sub. +verb+......,do/does/did +n't +sub./pron.?

Make tag question from the bellow sentences.

Rana plays ball.
She cut the tree.
You dag the land.
They swam in the pond.
We travel there every year.
I see a bird.
Honesty pays most.
Mun disturbed me.
It attracted me .
He goes on foot.



Read the bellow sentences:

Shut the door,will/won't you?
Read aloud,will/can/could you?
Do not run,will you?
Please,help me,will you?
Let me go, will you?
But Let us play,shall we?

Make structures from the above sentences.
Verb +ext,will you?
Do not +verb +ext,will you?
Let me/him/her/them/noun +verb+ext.,will you?
Please,verb+ext.,will you?
Let us/'s +verb.shall we?

Make tag question from the bellow sentences

Go straight.
Run a race.
Hurry up.
Do not tell a lie.
Always speak the thruth.
Do not shout.
Let her sing a song.
Let them play now.
Move a little bit.
Let 's watch a movie.
Let us go on a picnic.



Read the bellow sentences.

I don't play cricket,do I?
We shan't go there,shall we?
He won't come,will he?
He isn't honest,is he?

Make a structure from the above sentences.
Sub. +A.V.n't +..............,A.V. +sub/pron.?

I amn't doing this.
I shan't read aloud.
He isn't sleeping now.
He has no car.
They have no shelter.
The boy hadn't shouted.
You don't know me.
She doesn't go.
We didn't run in the sun.
The cattle aren't grazing in the field.
They weren't honest.
The girl wasn't present.
You won't go.
She can't tell a lie.
We couldn't sing.
He wouldn't play.
You shouldn't hate the poor.
It mayn't rain today.
We must speak the truth.
The child mightn't walk.
We oughtn't to love them.
You needn't go there.
He daren't tell this.