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Thursday, August 25, 2011


Uses of capital letters.

  1. Every first letter of the first word of every sentence must be written in capital .i.e. He goes home.Everybody hates a liar.
  2. The firrst letter of the first word of evry sentence of a poem must be  capital.i.e.The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more.
  3. The first letter of every proper noun and proper adjective will be capital.i.e He knows Aslam.They like Chinese dishes.
  4. pronoun I and interjection O will always be in capital.i.e/If they want, I 'll help them.Bless me, O' God.
  5. God/Allah and its pronoun will strt with a prayed to Allah and He blessed me.
  6. Tittle and abbreviation will always be written in capital Dr.
  7. The salutation of a letter will start with a capital Sir,My dear mother.
  8. Evevy first letter of a sentence in quotation will be said,"I am honest."



A group of words having a subject and a finite verb used as a part of a large sentence is a clause.

It is of three kinds.

1.Principle clause-which has a subj. And a finite verb and can express a sense alone.i.e.everybody hates him.

2.Subordinate clause-has a subj.and a verb and cannot express a sense without the principle clause.i.e. because he is a liar.

3.Co-ordinate clause-two ormore clause are joined with a conjunction.i.e.I went and met him.



A group of word having no subj.and verb ,expressin an incomplete sense is used as a part of speech in a sentence is called a phrase.Phrases are of five kinds.

1.Noun phrase-which is used as a noun.i.e.I don't know how to swim.

2.Adjective phrase-which is used as an adjective.i.e.He is out and out a gentleman.

3.Adverb phrase -which is used as an adverb.i.e.we will suffer in the long run.

4.Prepositional phrase-which is used as a preposition.i.e.because of illness,he came here.

5.Conjunctional phrase-which is used as a conjunction.i.e.I'll go there as soon as Ican .

There are verbal and interjection phrase also.


Parts of speech

Every word of a sentence is called a part of speech.

It is of 8 kinds.

1.Noun:any naming word of a sentence is a noun.i.e.John,Reba,ink,girl,cow,sea,rice etc.

2.Pronoun:the word which is used instead of a noun is called a pronoun.i.e.I.WE ,YOU etc

3.Verb:the word means to do,go,doetc.

4.Adjective:the word which express the quality,quantity,number or qualify any noun or pronoun ,is called an adjective.i.e.good,bad,one etc.

5.Adverb;the word which express other words of a sentence without noun or pronoun is an adverb.i.e.well,yesterday etc.

6.Preposition: the word sitting before a noun/pronoun connect it with other word of the sentence is a preposition.i.e. To,from etc.

7.Conjunction:the word which join two or more word,phrase and clause.i.e. And,therefore,but etc.

8.Interjection: the word expressing mental thought is an interjection.i.e.oh!hurrah!etc



There are three kinds of person.

1.First person:the word which does the verb.they are I,WE,ME,US.MINE,OURS.

2.Second person:to whom is said.they are YOU,YOUR..YOURS.




According to structure,there are three types of sentence.

1.simple sentence:if a sentence has a sub. and a finite verb,it is called a simple sentence.i.e.He reads a book.

2.Compound sentence:if two or more principle clause are linked with any co-ordinating conjunction,it is called a compound sentence.i.e.He came here and met me.

3.Complex sentence:if any sentence has a principle clause and a or many subordinate clause linked with a subordinate conjunction,it is called a complex sentence.i.e.He came here sothat he could meet me.


Every sentence has two parts.
1.subject.:the word that does the function of a verb.
2.predicate:the rest of words.

Read the bellow sentences.

Sakila sings a song.
Haider went home yesterday.

From the above sentences,Sakila and Haider are subject.
Sings a song and went home yesterday are the predicate.

The subj.part contains subject and adjunct to the subject.
The predicate part contains verb,object and ext.

Subj.may be noun.pronoun ..adjective,verb. gerund.. phrase and clause.
Adjunct to the subject may be adj.adv.phrase,clause,participle, infinitive etc
verb may be auxiliary verb and main verb.
Object is as like as subject.
Ext. May be adj.adv etc.



Read the following group of words.
Goes the school to boy.
I song a sing.
He draws a picture.

From the above group of words the first two doesn't express a complete sense but the 3rd one does so.

If a group of words having an organized arrangement express a complete sense, it is called a sentence.
According to meaning there are five kinds of sentences.They are

1. Assertive

If a sentence narrates sth it is called an assertive sentence.
The structure are following
1. subj. +(a.v.+v)/verb +ext.
2.sub .+a.v. +not/no +ext.
For example
She goes home.They play football.
You are not honest. We have no car.

If a sentence is used to know sth ,it is called a question or an interrogative sentence. There are four types of questions.

a.if a question starts with an a.v .and the answer may be yes/no ,it is called an a.v/yes-no question.i.e.
Are you well?Have you done it?

2.if a question starts with a wh-word for any information,it is called a wh-question.i.e
who are you? What does he do?

3.if there is a short at the end of any sentence,it is called a tag question.i.e.He is honest,isn't he?

4.if an assertive sentence ends with a sign of interrogation for any surprise,it is called surprising/wondering question.i.e.He makes a noise?

The structures are following:
1.A.V. +subj. +ext?
2.wh-word +a.v.+ Ext?
3.subj. +a.v./verb +ext,'t/a.v +subj.?
4.subj. Verb.+ext.?
3.if a sentence express any order/advice/ is called an imperative sentence.i.e.
Do it.Do not do it.Let us do it.Let him do it.

The structures are following.
b.Do not +verb+ext.
c.Let us +verb +ext.
d.Let +him/her/it/them/noun+ verb+ext.
4.if a sentence any wish/prayer,it is called an optative sentence.i.e.May you be happy.Long live our country.

The structure are following:
May +subj.+verb+ext.

5.if a sentence expresses any wonder/surprise,it is called an exclamatory sentence.i.e.How tall he is!if I were rich!

The structures are following:
a.How/what +a/an+adj.+subj.+a.v/verb!
b.If +subj.+verb.(past)+ext!

Every sentence is of two kinds.
1.if a sentence expres any positive idea,it is called an affirmative sentence.
2.if a sentence expres any negative ,it is a negative sentence.