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Sunday, November 25, 2012

Noun pronoun agreement

1.if two or more singular noun joined by and are used in a sentence,the pronoun instead of these nouns will be plural.i.e.

John and Bony are learning their lessons.

2.if there are each or every before two singular nouns joined by and,the pronoun instead of them will be singular.i.e.

Every clerk and every peon must do his duty.

3.if two or more nouns are joined by either. . . .or/neither. . . . nor,the pronoun instead of them will be singular.i.e.

Either Rahim or Karim did his duty.
Neither Rana or Kamal will try his best.

4.if a plural noun and a singular noun are joined by or/nor,the pronoun will be plural.i.e.

Either the teachers or the headmaster succeeded in their attempt.

5.the pronoun used in lieu of any collective noun is in singular number and neuter gender and the verb is singular also.i.e.

The jury was divided in its opinion.
But the pronoun instead of noun of multitude is plural and the verb are also plural.i.e.

The jury were divided in their opinion.

6.the number ,gender and person of any pronoun will be as the same of the noun instead of which it is used.i.e.

The lady lost her purse.
He is a poet.

7.if there are first person,second person and third person in a sentence,one has to put second person at first,third person after that and next is called in short 231.i.e.

You,he and I are friends.

8.if first person is used with other noun and pronoun ,the pronoun which is used instead of them will be first person.The pronoun which is used instead of second person and other noun ,pronoun will be second person.For third person,the pronoun will be third person.i.e.

He and I did our duty.
You and he did your duty.
She and her friends did their duty.

Agreement of verbs with subject.

11.These nouns(spectacles,scissors,tidings, wages,thanks,ashes,assets,alms,aborigines,amends,auspices,billiards,bowels,pliers,shears,vitals,proceeds,annals,nuptials,bellows,environs,eves,entrails,measles,mumps,nuptials,odds,trousers,shorts,pants,jaws,glasses) are always plural and so the verb after these words must be plural.i.e.

The scissors are blunt.
His spectacles are broken.

But if there is any definite numeral adjective (brace,gross,dozen,pair,hundred.thousand,score,fathom,head)before them,the verb will be singular.i.e.

One dozen of bananas is sufficient.
A pair of shoes is on the table.

12.Though the name of a book or a country seems to be plural,they are singular and the verb after them will be singular.i.e.

Gulliver's travels is a famous book.
The United States of America is a rich country.

13.There is no plural form of adjectives.If there is the before an adjective ,it will be a plural common noun and the verb will be plural.i.e.

The poor are happy.
The rich are not honest.

14.if any gerund,clause,infinitive,phrase,verbal noun is the subject of a sentence,the verb will be singular.i.e.

To walk/walking is a good exercise.

15.the verb after a relative pronoun will be according to the antecedent of that relative pronoun.i.e.

It is I who have passed.

16.if the subject and the complement of a sentence are in different number,the verb will be according to the subject.i.e.

The Muslims are pious.

17.After one of the *noun,the verb will be singular.i.e.

One of the boys is present.

18.if a sentence starts with there and when the object is singular,the verb will be singular.but when the object is plural,the verb will be plural.i.e.

There is a boy under the tree.
There are two boys under the tree.

Agreement of verbs with subjects

7.collective noun is in singular number,so the verb is also in sing. Number.i.e.

The family has been living here.

8.if the subjective word refers to the same length,amount or place and seems tobe plural number,the verb must be in singular number.i.e.

Ten miles is a long distance.
Five mounds is a heavy weight.

But if the subjective words refers to number,the verb must be plural number.i.e.

Two third of the students were present.

9.These noun words(aristocracy.,nobility,plergy,cattle,poultry,people,folk,gentry,vermin) are always the verb after them will be plural.i.e.

Cattle are grazing in the field.
The clergy are happy.

10.These noun words (mathematics,news,physics,gallows,politics,small fox,whereabouts) are always singular,so the verb after them will be in singular.i.e.

The news is false.

Agreement of verbs with subjects

3.if two or more noun or pronoun joined by with,together with,,as well as,along with,in addition to,accompanied by,the verb will be according to the first subject.i.e.

Lily as well as her sisters has passed in the exam.
He accompanied by his parents has met Rana.

4.if two or more singular subjective words are joined by either-or,neither-nor ,the verb will be in singular number.i.e.

Either he or his brother will pass in the competition.

But if two or more subjective words joined by either-or/neither-nor are in different numbers/persons,the latter subjective word will be plural and the verb will be according to the letter subjective one.i.e.

Neither he nor his brothers were present.
Either she or I have done this.

5.if there are noun and pronoun of different persons in a sentence,we should place firstly second person word,then third person word and next first person word;but while confessing blame the first person word will be at first,then the second person word and next the third person word.i.e

You,Habib and I were present.
But I,you and he are guilty.

Agreement of verbs with subject

2.If two or more singular noun or pronoun joined by and(conjunction) is used as the subject of a sentence,the main verb and their pronoun will be plural number.i.e.

Jamal and Kamal went to their village.
There are some exception also.

A.if the subjective words joined by and refer to the same person or thing,the verb and pronoun will be in singular number.i.e.

The headmaster and secretary was present.

But if the subjective words joined by and refer to different person or thing ,the verb and pronoun will be in plural number.i.e.

The headmaster and the secretary were present.

B.if two or more noun joined by and are used as the subject of a sentence expressing any single mood,the verb will be in singular number.i.e.

Slow and steady wins the race.
But: Time and tide wait for none.

C.if there is each,every,any or no before a singular noun and two or more of this noun words joined by and are used as the subject of a sentence,the verb and pronoun will be in singular number.i.e.

Every boy,every girl and every child was welcomed.
No teacher and no student helps the poor girls.

D.if there is no or not after and which is used to join two or more nouns as the subject of a sentence,the verb will be according to the subjective word which is used before and.i.e.

Kamal and not his brothers helps me.

Agreement of verbs with subject

It means how to place a verb in a sentence.In sentence the main verb must be related to its subject. There is hard and fast rules. But one has to follow the bellow rules for placing the main verb in a sentence.

1.In every sentence,the main verb must be used according to the number and person of its subject that the number and person of a verb shall be as like as its subject.

If the subject is third person and singular,the verb will be third person and singular number. If the subject is first person and plural number ,the verb will be first person and plural number.For example

The colour of his eyes is blue.
The colours of his dress are white and blue.

How to write an Inviting letter.



How are you?
Hope you are well by the grace of Almighty.You will glad to know that.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . .on next . . . . . ............. .I earnestly request you to join the . . . . ................... I hope you will be present there to enhance the beauty of the . . ...............................

No more today.With best regards.

Yours' ever
. . . . .

How to write a notice


It is notified to inform that (.................. . . .class/....................... . . . . Meeting/. . . . ................. Vacation/. .............................. .feast/. . . . ............................ Examination) will be held/close/appointed/continued from . . ............................... to . . .......................... . Or on . . . ...................................This is a very important notice.All concerned are requested to maintain  this notice as mandatory.Otherwise you will be responsible for this reason.

Expecting your best co-operation.

Truly yours'

Sign. Of the authoritative person


Rules for finding out determiner,modifier,headword.finite,phrase in a sentence in an ease way:-

Determiner:generally determiner are seen at first in a sentence.

Modifier:the word or words between determiner and headword is modifier.

Headword:the subject of a sentence.

Participle phrase:v-ing/v-p.p/having +verb-p.p/noun are participle phrase.

Infinitive phrase:to +verb +noun is an infinitive phrase

prepositional phrase:prep. +noun

finite:two or more verb of a sentence.

For example:The learned professor teaching english in our college has gone to Dhaka to meet his friend.

Here the *deter.learned *modify.professor *head w.teaching english * our college/to dhaka *prep. Phrase.has gone *verb meet*infinitive phrase.his friend*noun phrase


The word which is used to make a noun definite,indefinite or to indicate quantity or number is a determiner.According to use,determiners are of 7 kinds.

1.Before a singular countable noun:a,all,any,a certain,each,either.neither,every,the first/last/second,half,least,many a,my,our,your,his,her,their,next,no,one,the only,another,other,the same.some,such a..that, the,this,the very,what,which,whose,zero etc.

2.Before a plural countable noun:all,any,both,certain,enough,few,a few,fewer,fewest.the first/second/last,half,a lot of,lots of,many,a good/great many,more ,most,my,his ,her ,their,our, your,the next,no,a great number of,only,the only,other,the other,plenty of.the same,several,some,such,the,those,these,the very,what,which,whose,zero

3.Before an uncountable noun:all.a great amount of,any,a good/great deal of,enough,half,least,less,little,a lot of,lots of,more,most,much,my,our,your,his,her,their, no,the only,other,the other,plenty of,the same,some,such,that,the,these,the very,what,which,whose,zero indicates any previous singular countable noun:I want a pen.Take any one you like.

5.ones indicate any previous plural countable noun:I want some books Take any ones. a pronoun:I have not any a predetermine:I have not read any of the poems yet.
one can not place any determiner before a proper noun.

The most common used determiners are,the



d.Cardinal numbers:one, two,three etc.

e.Ordinal numbers:first,second,third

f.General ordinals:next,last,other,the other,another,further

g.Quantifiers:some,any,many,no,every,either,neither,each,enough,much,a lot of,little,more,most,less,least,few,several,a great number,plenty of,a good deal of,a great number of, lots of,a good/great many.

Friday, November 23, 2012

How to learn about letter writing

Letter writing
Letter writing is not very difficult.In order to exchange thought, feelings,experiences,messages,views,People use  to write letters.Now a days due to access to other means of modern,recent and scientific ways of communication, it is seen in different offices and business farms.In every letter,one must aware of what he is going to write,to whom he is writing,why he is writing.He should write in such way that the receiver can easily understand clearly while reading.A letter may be historically important.It is a document too.For this the sender or writer must be careful of his writing.

Writing application on public affairs

with a view to writing application on public affairs one can write in the following way:

The post of the authoritative person
subject: prayer for ........................................

Dear sir,

we,the inhabitants of ............... locality,beg to draw your kind notice that ours' an over populated area.But it is a matter of regret that ................. .So,we are in need of ..........

May we,therefore,pray and hope that you be kind enough to grant the prayer and oblige thereby. 

Sincerely yours'
the inhabitants of.............area/locality.
Suppose you are going to write an application to the D.C. for repairing the roads,then you should write,

The D.C.
subject:prayer for repairing  the roads.

Dear sir ,
we .the people of sadar upzilla,like to draw your kind notice that ours' is a vast area.About ten thousand people live here.A lot of people come here everyday for various purpose.But it is a matter of regret that all the roads of our locality have been damaged.They are not suitable for movement.So,we are in need of repairing the roads.

May we,therefore,pray and hope that you would be kind enough to grant the prayer and oblige thereby.

Sincerely yours.'
the people of sadar upzilla.

How to write application on public affairs.

with a view to learning to write application for joint purpose/public affairs,one may try in the following way,

Dear sir ,
I,on behalf of the students of your institution,beg to state that ours' a famous institute.But it's a matter of regret that ................................ So,we are in need of ....................(write from the subj.)

May I/we ,therefore,pray and hope that you will kindly grant the prayer.

Yours' obediently,
your name
on behalf of the students of your institute.
The student of your institute.

Suppose in order to write an application to the H.M./principle for a canteen/computer club ,one can write:-

The H.M./Principal

subject:prayer for a canteen/to set up a canteen/for setting up a canteen.

Dear sir .

I,onbehalf of the students of your school/college or
we,the student of your school/college,
beg to state that our's a famous school/college in our locality.It is a matter of great regret that there is no canteen here.As a result we suffer much for want of a canteen.So.we are in need of setting up a canteen.
May I/we, therefore ,pray and hope that you will kindly grant the prayer and oblige thereby.

Yours' obediently,
on behalf of the students of your school/college.
The students of your school/college.

How to write an Application

As a student,one has to write some application to various authority individually,jointly and for public affairs.With a view to learning to write an application to any authority for any individual affairs,one can write through the bellow way.

The post of the authoritative person

subject:Prayer for noun/to +verb/for +verb -ing+ext.

Dear Sir,

I beg to state that I am a student in this institution for a few years. I always continue with a good result in the examinations. .........................................So I am in need of ......................

May I, therefore ,pray and hope that you will kindly grant the prayer and oblige thereby. 

Yours' obediently
your name.

The Headword

The main word of a phrase modified by other words is the honest man in this phrase man is a headword.usually it lies in noun phrase,noun clause,verb phrase,adj.phrase,adv.phrase.

How to recognize headword:
1.noun phrase as headword:the noun used in the noun phrase is a can be used as subj.and obj.

a.noun phrase as headword as subject:an honest boy can succeed.Here boy a headword.

b.noun phrase as headword as object:we honour a learned man.

Sometimes1.noun infinitive phrase may be the tell a lie is a sin.2.compound headword:if there are more word liked by and,or,but,it is compound subject.It is the headword also.3.noun clause as headword:a noun clause used as a subject in a sentence is a headword.i.e.That he is honest is true 

c.verb phrase as headword:there are av and p.v in a verb phrase and the p.v. of a verb phrase is the headword..i.e.He has been playing is the headword.

d.adj.phrase as headword:he is quite hopeful of his success.Here hopeful is a headword.

e.adv.phrase as headword:Ice was all around them.Here around is a headword.


d.Noun -adjective as premodifier:when a noun with an adjective is used before a noun .i.e.a small tea pot,a nice fob chain,a busy bus station

e.compounds as premodifier:it is a group of words using as a single adj. Or noun.i.e.a hard working man,a back-dated idea,a first-class compartment.etc.

f.possessive as a modifier: possessive adj. my,our,his,her,their,your are also used as a premodifier.i.e.his cousin,her brother,Ra-him's father etc.

g.Adverb as premodifier:then headmaster,above passage,dawn train etc.


The modifier which is used after a noun or noun phrase is a post modifier.there are different type of post modifier

a.infinitive phrase as post modifier:to verb. *noun is used after another noun.i.e.a trial to save life,decision to study medicine etc.

b.participle as post modifier;present and past participle are used post modifier.i.e.the man lying on the floor,the book published in 1993 etc.

c.prep.phrase as post modifier:the in torn cloth,the fish on the fan etc.

d.Appositive as a post modifier:when two noun remaining closely indicate the same person or thing ,then the letter one is the Appositive or case in apposition.i.e.Mr.Ahmed,headmaster of this school.

e.adjective as post modifier:sometimes adj. Is used after a noun or pronoun(everyone,some ,any ,each) as a post modifier.i.e.members present in the meeting,something abnormal in his behavior etc.

f.Relative clause as post modifier:the man who came here,the pen which is black etc.

g.adverb as post modifier:any adverb used after a noun.i.e.the question bellow,the man there etc.


The word or phrase using before a noun modifies it,is called a give more information about a works like an adjective in a sentence. It is used before or after of the headword of a sentence.sometimes there may be modifier of an adverbial phrase.Determiners,adjectives and noun-adj. can be used as modifier.
Modifiers are of two kinds.1.premodifier and modifier


When any modifier is used before a noun or noun phrase,it is called is used before the headword of a noun phrase and after the determiner of it.There are different types of premodifier.

a.Adjective as premodifier:when an adj. is used before a noun or noun is also called attributive use of article.i.e.a wise boy,an interesting story.

b.participle as premodifier:when a participle is used before a noun or noun phrase.only present(v-ing) and past participle(v-p.p) are used in this case.i.e. A sleeping dog,a learned man,running train,polluted air.

c.noun as premodifier:when a noun modifies another noun.i.e.train journey,bus fare,sea beach.

Writing composition

It is not easy to write composition.In order to write a composition,one must have knowledge in sentence making,vocabulary,using phrase and idioms etc.One's imagination is helpful too.If any body is able to think and write creative .he will have the ability to write any composition quite well. One should read articles,journals,poem,story,composition,etc.One should read daily newspaper too.One should keep a diary.First he can write 2-5 sentence everyday and correct them with the help of his parents,guardians,teachers etc.Afterwards he should write 2-5 para a day.When he is habituated ,he will write 2 or more pages a day.He will write whatever he likes/watches/enjoys/sees.Then he will be able to write a composition or any creative thing.

An Appositive or Case in Apposition

when two noun sitting beside each other indicate the same person or thing is an appositive or case in apposition. There should be put comma before and after the is used as a noun is of three kinds.such as 

1)Nominitive in appositive: used after the subject.i.e.Mr.kamal,headmaster of this school, is very honest.
2)Objective in appositive: used after the object to express more about the object.i.e.I know Jamal ,an honest boy.
3)possessive in adjective: the possessive to indicate the possession with its previous noun.i.e.I know Nazru,the poet's work.

The appositive used at first of a sentence sits before the noun.i.e.The famous novel,David copperfield is a classic.

Monday, April 16, 2012


There are three ways  for  changing masculine  gender  to feminene gender.
They are :-
1.using an opposite word i.e.

Masculine     feminene
Man                woman,
Boy                  girl,
Lad                   lady

2.adding –ess at the end of a masculine noun i.e.

Masculine     feminene
Tiger              tigress
Lion              lioness
Poet            poetess

3.using the feminene noun of a masculine noun in a compound noun i.e.

Masculine                  feminene
Brother-in-law            sister-in-law
Milkman                     milkmaid
Bull-calf                      cow-calf



Gender are of four   types. They are 
1.Masculine gender

 2.Femine gender 
3.Common gender 
4.Neuter gender. 
The following tree of gender can easily indicate the different types of gender.

1.    Masculine gender:-It indicates the state of being male about a noun or pronoun.i.e. Boy,Man,Tiger 
2.Femine gender:-It indicates the state of being female about a noun or pronoun.i.e.Sister,Actress,Girl
3.Common    gender:-It indicates the state of being  both male and female about a noun or pronoun.i.e. Child,Friend,Baby
4.Neuter gender:-It indicates the state of being  neither male nor female about a noun or pronoun.i.e.tree,book,table

Sunday, April 15, 2012


Gender means the state of being male or female. It is used in grammatically to ideentify a noun or pronoun weather it is male / female or none of this. If any noun /pronoun indicates  neither male nor female ,then it may be common gender or neutral in gender.

Read the bellow sentences:-

Rahim is an old man.
Hehas three children.
 His wife is a young lady.
She does everything in her house.

Here the words Rahim,He,man indicate being the state of male.Again wife,lady,she indicate being the state of female. Children indicates being the state of  both male and female .But house everything can’t be identified in gender.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012


Foreign plural:-






Mr. Zaman-------------------------Mr.Zamans
Miss Zaman.----------------------Miss Zamans
Master Zaman-------------------The Master Zamans

Number of pronoun:-


Monday, February 27, 2012



9)Some nouns may take plural forms.But when they make compound adjective and indicate some quantity or number,they will be singular and the following singular adjectives will be used before the compound adjective .i.e.a,an,one,this,that etc.For example:- a ten year boy,a five foot scale,a one taka note etc.

10)All fractions/portions are always plural except one part of the portion/fraction i.e.
Two thirds of the work.Three fives of the mango etc.

11)Length or quantity will be always in singular i.e. Fifty miles,Two months etc.

12)The name of any country /book will be in singular i.e.Great Expectations,The United State of  America etc.

13)If word means news or expectation or promise in a sentence, word will be in singular.

14)If a singular noun is used after lots/a lot/heaps/half,the verb after this noun will be singular and if a plural noun is used after lots/a lot/heaps/half,the verb after this noun will be plural.

15)More than one is always used in singular;so,the verb after it will be singular.If there are two/three after more than ,the verb will be plural.

16)If the same noun are linked with/by/to/after,they will be singular i.e.Day after day.

17)There is no plural form of any adjective.But if definite article "the" is used before an adjective,it will be a plural common noun and the verb after it will be plural.

18) Earlier 's is added after letter and figure to make them plural.Now-a-days '(apostropy) is not used in plural form.

19)Hunting birds or animals are used to indicate collective meaning,they will be plurals.



1)The following words are always in singular;they have no plural form. i.e.
Furniture,Scenery,Information,Poetry,Machinery,Expenditure,Issue,Bread etc.

2)The following words are always in plural,they have no singular form .i.e.
Aristocracy,Gentry,Nobility,Peasantry,Cattle,Poultry,Majority,Tenantry,Perfumery, Artillery,Vermin,People, Public,Mankind,Clergy,Government etc.

3)Though the following words seems to be plural,they are always used in singular number .i.e.
Mathematics,Physics,Politics,Economics,News,Ethics,Optics,Innings,Wages,Gallows,Athletics etc.
4)Generally Fruit,Fish,brick,hair,Alphabet are used in singular number;but when they refer different meaning,they can be plural number.

5)The following words are always used in plural number i.e.
Alms,Amends,Mumps,Measles,Scissors,Trousers,Spectacles,Environs, Nuptials,Proceeds,Bowels,Tidings,Assets,Belongings,Savings,Earnings, Surroundings,Aborigines,Ashes,Entrails,Fetters,Vitals etc.But amends,mumps,measles,alms,tidings can be used in singular form also.

6)The following words are always similar in both singular number and plural number .i.e,
Deer,Sheep,Canon,Gross,Pice,Apparatus,Swine,Spices,Innings,Corps,Salmon etc.

7)If there is the following numeral words used before a noun,the noun will not be plural.i.e.
Dozen,Brace,Fathom,Yoke,Score,Pair,Hundred,Thousand,Head etc.

8)If the following numeral words are used before a noun and the numerals indicate double or triple,the noun word will be plural i.e.
Some,Several,A few, lots of ,Many etc.

Friday, February 17, 2012


11)There some singular words which have two different meaning plural forms .i.e.


Beef----------------------------------------------------1)Beefs, 2)Beeves

12)The following singular words have two meaning ,on the other hand their plural forms have only a meaning i.e.2)



13)The following singular words have a meaning but their plural forms have two meaning.i.e.



14)The  meaning of thefollowing singular forms is different from their plural forms .i.e.



Saturday, February 4, 2012


If man in a compound noun in singular word does not refer to a human,only "s" should be added after the  word to make it in plural form.i.e.



9)If there is full with a singular compound noun,only "s" is added to make it a plural noun.i.e.



10)If a compound noun has many parts,the main part of it should be turned into plural word.i.e.