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Sunday, November 25, 2012

Noun pronoun agreement

1.if two or more singular noun joined by and are used in a sentence,the pronoun instead of these nouns will be plural.i.e.

John and Bony are learning their lessons.

2.if there are each or every before two singular nouns joined by and,the pronoun instead of them will be singular.i.e.

Every clerk and every peon must do his duty.

3.if two or more nouns are joined by either. . . .or/neither. . . . nor,the pronoun instead of them will be singular.i.e.

Either Rahim or Karim did his duty.
Neither Rana or Kamal will try his best.

4.if a plural noun and a singular noun are joined by or/nor,the pronoun will be plural.i.e.

Either the teachers or the headmaster succeeded in their attempt.

5.the pronoun used in lieu of any collective noun is in singular number and neuter gender and the verb is singular also.i.e.

The jury was divided in its opinion.
But the pronoun instead of noun of multitude is plural and the verb are also plural.i.e.

The jury were divided in their opinion.

6.the number ,gender and person of any pronoun will be as the same of the noun instead of which it is used.i.e.

The lady lost her purse.
He is a poet.

7.if there are first person,second person and third person in a sentence,one has to put second person at first,third person after that and next is called in short 231.i.e.

You,he and I are friends.

8.if first person is used with other noun and pronoun ,the pronoun which is used instead of them will be first person.The pronoun which is used instead of second person and other noun ,pronoun will be second person.For third person,the pronoun will be third person.i.e.

He and I did our duty.
You and he did your duty.
She and her friends did their duty.

Agreement of verbs with subject.

11.These nouns(spectacles,scissors,tidings, wages,thanks,ashes,assets,alms,aborigines,amends,auspices,billiards,bowels,pliers,shears,vitals,proceeds,annals,nuptials,bellows,environs,eves,entrails,measles,mumps,nuptials,odds,trousers,shorts,pants,jaws,glasses) are always plural and so the verb after these words must be plural.i.e.

The scissors are blunt.
His spectacles are broken.

But if there is any definite numeral adjective (brace,gross,dozen,pair,hundred.thousand,score,fathom,head)before them,the verb will be singular.i.e.

One dozen of bananas is sufficient.
A pair of shoes is on the table.

12.Though the name of a book or a country seems to be plural,they are singular and the verb after them will be singular.i.e.

Gulliver's travels is a famous book.
The United States of America is a rich country.

13.There is no plural form of adjectives.If there is the before an adjective ,it will be a plural common noun and the verb will be plural.i.e.

The poor are happy.
The rich are not honest.

14.if any gerund,clause,infinitive,phrase,verbal noun is the subject of a sentence,the verb will be singular.i.e.

To walk/walking is a good exercise.

15.the verb after a relative pronoun will be according to the antecedent of that relative pronoun.i.e.

It is I who have passed.

16.if the subject and the complement of a sentence are in different number,the verb will be according to the subject.i.e.

The Muslims are pious.

17.After one of the *noun,the verb will be singular.i.e.

One of the boys is present.

18.if a sentence starts with there and when the object is singular,the verb will be singular.but when the object is plural,the verb will be plural.i.e.

There is a boy under the tree.
There are two boys under the tree.

Agreement of verbs with subjects

7.collective noun is in singular number,so the verb is also in sing. Number.i.e.

The family has been living here.

8.if the subjective word refers to the same length,amount or place and seems tobe plural number,the verb must be in singular number.i.e.

Ten miles is a long distance.
Five mounds is a heavy weight.

But if the subjective words refers to number,the verb must be plural number.i.e.

Two third of the students were present.

9.These noun words(aristocracy.,nobility,plergy,cattle,poultry,people,folk,gentry,vermin) are always the verb after them will be plural.i.e.

Cattle are grazing in the field.
The clergy are happy.

10.These noun words (mathematics,news,physics,gallows,politics,small fox,whereabouts) are always singular,so the verb after them will be in singular.i.e.

The news is false.

Agreement of verbs with subjects

3.if two or more noun or pronoun joined by with,together with,,as well as,along with,in addition to,accompanied by,the verb will be according to the first subject.i.e.

Lily as well as her sisters has passed in the exam.
He accompanied by his parents has met Rana.

4.if two or more singular subjective words are joined by either-or,neither-nor ,the verb will be in singular number.i.e.

Either he or his brother will pass in the competition.

But if two or more subjective words joined by either-or/neither-nor are in different numbers/persons,the latter subjective word will be plural and the verb will be according to the letter subjective one.i.e.

Neither he nor his brothers were present.
Either she or I have done this.

5.if there are noun and pronoun of different persons in a sentence,we should place firstly second person word,then third person word and next first person word;but while confessing blame the first person word will be at first,then the second person word and next the third person word.i.e

You,Habib and I were present.
But I,you and he are guilty.

Agreement of verbs with subject

2.If two or more singular noun or pronoun joined by and(conjunction) is used as the subject of a sentence,the main verb and their pronoun will be plural number.i.e.

Jamal and Kamal went to their village.
There are some exception also.

A.if the subjective words joined by and refer to the same person or thing,the verb and pronoun will be in singular number.i.e.

The headmaster and secretary was present.

But if the subjective words joined by and refer to different person or thing ,the verb and pronoun will be in plural number.i.e.

The headmaster and the secretary were present.

B.if two or more noun joined by and are used as the subject of a sentence expressing any single mood,the verb will be in singular number.i.e.

Slow and steady wins the race.
But: Time and tide wait for none.

C.if there is each,every,any or no before a singular noun and two or more of this noun words joined by and are used as the subject of a sentence,the verb and pronoun will be in singular number.i.e.

Every boy,every girl and every child was welcomed.
No teacher and no student helps the poor girls.

D.if there is no or not after and which is used to join two or more nouns as the subject of a sentence,the verb will be according to the subjective word which is used before and.i.e.

Kamal and not his brothers helps me.

Agreement of verbs with subject

It means how to place a verb in a sentence.In sentence the main verb must be related to its subject. There is hard and fast rules. But one has to follow the bellow rules for placing the main verb in a sentence.

1.In every sentence,the main verb must be used according to the number and person of its subject that the number and person of a verb shall be as like as its subject.

If the subject is third person and singular,the verb will be third person and singular number. If the subject is first person and plural number ,the verb will be first person and plural number.For example

The colour of his eyes is blue.
The colours of his dress are white and blue.

How to write an Inviting letter.



How are you?
Hope you are well by the grace of Almighty.You will glad to know that.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . .on next . . . . . ............. .I earnestly request you to join the . . . . ................... I hope you will be present there to enhance the beauty of the . . ...............................

No more today.With best regards.

Yours' ever
. . . . .

How to write a notice


It is notified to inform that (.................. . . .class/....................... . . . . Meeting/. . . . ................. Vacation/. .............................. .feast/. . . . ............................ Examination) will be held/close/appointed/continued from . . ............................... to . . .......................... . Or on . . . ...................................This is a very important notice.All concerned are requested to maintain  this notice as mandatory.Otherwise you will be responsible for this reason.

Expecting your best co-operation.

Truly yours'

Sign. Of the authoritative person


Rules for finding out determiner,modifier,headword.finite,phrase in a sentence in an ease way:-

Determiner:generally determiner are seen at first in a sentence.

Modifier:the word or words between determiner and headword is modifier.

Headword:the subject of a sentence.

Participle phrase:v-ing/v-p.p/having +verb-p.p/noun are participle phrase.

Infinitive phrase:to +verb +noun is an infinitive phrase

prepositional phrase:prep. +noun

finite:two or more verb of a sentence.

For example:The learned professor teaching english in our college has gone to Dhaka to meet his friend.

Here the *deter.learned *modify.professor *head w.teaching english * our college/to dhaka *prep. Phrase.has gone *verb meet*infinitive phrase.his friend*noun phrase


The word which is used to make a noun definite,indefinite or to indicate quantity or number is a determiner.According to use,determiners are of 7 kinds.

1.Before a singular countable noun:a,all,any,a certain,each,either.neither,every,the first/last/second,half,least,many a,my,our,your,his,her,their,next,no,one,the only,another,other,the same.some,such a..that, the,this,the very,what,which,whose,zero etc.

2.Before a plural countable noun:all,any,both,certain,enough,few,a few,fewer,fewest.the first/second/last,half,a lot of,lots of,many,a good/great many,more ,most,my,his ,her ,their,our, your,the next,no,a great number of,only,the only,other,the other,plenty of.the same,several,some,such,the,those,these,the very,what,which,whose,zero

3.Before an uncountable noun:all.a great amount of,any,a good/great deal of,enough,half,least,less,little,a lot of,lots of,more,most,much,my,our,your,his,her,their, no,the only,other,the other,plenty of,the same,some,such,that,the,these,the very,what,which,whose,zero indicates any previous singular countable noun:I want a pen.Take any one you like.

5.ones indicate any previous plural countable noun:I want some books Take any ones. a pronoun:I have not any a predetermine:I have not read any of the poems yet.
one can not place any determiner before a proper noun.

The most common used determiners are,the



d.Cardinal numbers:one, two,three etc.

e.Ordinal numbers:first,second,third

f.General ordinals:next,last,other,the other,another,further

g.Quantifiers:some,any,many,no,every,either,neither,each,enough,much,a lot of,little,more,most,less,least,few,several,a great number,plenty of,a good deal of,a great number of, lots of,a good/great many.